Bailey, C., Madden, A., Alfes, K.,& Fletcher, L. (2017). The Meaning, Antecedents and Outcomes of EmployeeEngagement: A Narrative Synthesis: Employee Engagement. InternationalJournal of Management Reviews, 19(1), 31–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12077
Abstract: The claim that high levels of engagement can enhance organizational performance and individual well-being has not previously been tested through a systematic review of the evidence. To bring coherence to the diffuse body of literature on engagement, the authors conducted a systematic synthesis of narrative evidence involving 214 studies focused on the meaning, antecedents and outcomes of engagement.The authors identified six distinct conceptualizations of engagement, with the field dominated by the Utrecht Group’s ‘work engagement’ construct and measure, and by the theorization of engagement within the ‘job demands–resources’ framework.Five groups of factors served as antecedents to engagement: psychological states;job design; leadership; organizational and team factors; and organizational interventions.Engagement was found to be positively associated with individual morale, task performance, extra-role performance and organizational performance, and the evidence was most robust in relation to task performance. However, there was an over-reliance on quantitative, cross-sectional and self-report studies within the field, which limited claims of causality. To address controversies over the commonly used measures and concepts in the field and gaps in the evidence-base, the authors set out an agenda for future research that integrates emerging critical sociological perspectives on engagement with the psychological perspectives that currently dominate the field.
Bersin, J., Flynn, J., Mazor, A.,& Melian, V. (2017). The employee experience: Culture, engagement, andbeyond (Deloitte Insights). Retrieved from https://dupress.deloitte.com/dup-us-en/focus/human-capital-trends/2017/improving-the-employee-experience-culture-engagement.html
Abstract: Rather than focusing narrowly on engagement and culture, many leading organizations aim to improve the employee experience as a whole, supported by a multitude of pulse feedback tools, wellness and fitness apps, and employee self-service technologies.
Eldor, L., & Vigoda-Gadot, E.(2017). The nature of employee engagement: rethinking the employee–organizationrelationship. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(3),526–552. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2016.1180312
Abstract:Research interest in the new concept of employee engagement has grown dramatically in recent years. Employee engagement represents a work-related state of mind characterized by feelings of vigor, fulfillment,enthusiasm, absorption and dedication. However, scholars are still ambivalent about its theoretical contribution to explaining the employee–organization relationship. The goal of the study is to strengthen the theoretical foundation of the employee engagement concept in light of this relationship. We first compared employee engagement to other close concepts such as psychological empowerment and psychological contract. We then examined its contribution to the explanation of work centrality over and above psychological empowerment and psychological contract. Our study is based on an interactive sample of 593 employees from both private and public organizations in Israel. Our findings demonstrate that employee engagement is distinct from psychological empowerment and psychological contract and has an incremental value for work centrality over and above psychological empowerment and psychological contract.Implications of our findings are discussed the light of the employee–organization relationship.
Fletcher, L., & Robinson, D.(2014). Measuring and understanding engagement. In Employee engagement intheory and practice (pp. 273–290). New York: Routledge.
Guha, S., Muller, M., Shami, N. S.,Masli, M., & Geyer, W. (n.d.). Using organizational social networks topredict employee engagement. In Tenth International AAAI Conference on Weband Social Media ICWSM.
Abstract: Employee engagement (EE) has been shown to have important implications for the success of organizations. Most researchers have discussed employee engagement in terms of factors in a top-down, hierarchical model of the organization. However, there may also be contributing factors from an employee’s intra-organizational social network. (IOSN). In this paper, we show that an employee’s social network attributes can contribute to the prediction of engagement, primarily through centrality and homophily in a large,multinational company. Our research expands the range of theoretical factors that can predict employee engagement from a top-down vertical model to a mixed factor horizontal model. We discuss how this work points toward a richer set of methods to predict engagement, as well as new ways of thinking about organizational networks.
Hakanen, J., Schaufeli, W. B., &Ahola, K. (n.d.). The Job Demands-Resources model: A three-year cross-laggedstudy of burnout, depression, commitment, and work engagement. Work &Stress, 22(3), 224–241.
Abstract: By using a full panel design in a representative sample of Finnish dentists (N 2555), the present study aimed to test longitudinally the motivational and health impairment processes as proposed in the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. The second aim was to investigate whether home resources and home demands have an additional influence on both processes over time. The hypotheses were tested with cross-lagged analyses based on two waves over a 3-year period. The results supported both the motivational process and the health impairment process. Job resources influenced future work engagement, which, in turn, predicted organizational commitment, whereas job demands predicted burnout over time, which, in turn, predicted future depression. In addition, job resources had a weak negative impact on burnout. Home demands and home resource sdid not influence the motivational or health impairment process over time. The results support the central role of work characteristics for health and well-being. By integrating both human thriving and ill-health in the same model, the JD-R model may help to bridge the gap between ‘‘negative’’ and‘‘positive’’ psychology.
Jain, S., & Khurana, N. (2017).Enhancing Employee Engagement Through Training and Development. AsianJournal of Management, 8(1).
Abstract: The present study was aimed to map the impact of Training and Development practices on overall employee engagement and also with respect to different factors of employee engagement. These factors are Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Advocacy, Pride, Intention to Stay and Emotional Connect. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect primary data of 450 respondents. The results of the study revealed that there is a significant effect of Training and development on Job satisfaction,Organizational commitment, Advocacy, Pride, Intention to stay and overall employee engagement score. However, training and development had no effect on Emotional connect of the employees.
Jena, L. K., & Pradhan, S.(2017). Research and recommendations for employee engagement: Revisitingthe employee-organization linkage. Development and Learning inOrganizations; Bradford, 31(5), 17–19.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to propose a conceptual model of employee engagement that will help employees to contribute toward organizational and societal goals in meaningful ways.This study takes an exploratory viewpoint of employee engagement based on the extant literature and offers a conceptual model of employee engagement and its possible merits.The paper strives to expand our understanding of employee engagement and addresses concerns regarding an apathetic treatment by practitioners.The paper draws the attention of both academicians and practitioners by offering a conceptual model that will compel them to rethink the ways employee engagement is considered.
Kahn, K., & Kahn, W. A. (19901201).Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement at Work. TheAcademy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724.
Abstract: It is hypothesized that people can use varying degrees of their personal selves – physically, cognitively, and emotionally – in work role performances and that this has implications for both their work and experiences. Two qualitative, theory-generating studies are conducted to explore the conditions at work in which people personally engage or disengage their personal selves. Three psychological conditions and their individual and contextual sources are illustrated: meaningfulness, safety, and availability.Factors that influenced meaningfulness include task characteristics, role characteristics, and work interactions. Safety is influenced by interpersonal relationships, group and intergroup dynamics, management style and process, and organizational norms. Availability is influenced by depletion of physical energy, depletion of emotional energy, individual insecurity, and outside lives.
King, L., & Drake, K. (2018).How to drive employee engagement through high-performance leadership. NursingManagement, 49(7), 7–8.
Brief article: five tips for leaders on how to drive engagement.
Kumar, V., & Pansari, A. (2015).Measuring the benefits of employee engagement. MIT Sloan Management Review,56(4), 66–72.
Abstract: Studies show that improving employees’ attitudes toward the company can help enhance profitability and customer relations. Organizations are advised to measure employee engagement using a scorecard in order to uncover areas of staff development that require attention.
Kusy, M., & Holloway, E. (2010).Cultivating a culture of respectful engagement. Leader to Leader, 2010(58),50–56. https://doi.org/10.1002/ltl.442
Abstract: In their research, the authors found that 94 percent of leaders they surveyed reported working with toxic, disruptive, or uncivil people—people who use sarcasm, blame, disrespect, and even sabotage to pursue their own ends. Over time, tolerance of such behavior can lead to toxic systems that are particularly resistant to change. The authors outline strategies that can disrupt such toxic systems and create a culture of respectful engagement.
Lahey, Z. (2016). AnEmployee-Centric Digital Workplace: From Onboarding Through Engagement andRetention. Aberdeen Group.
Linlin Zhang, Nan Zhang, & YangQiu. (2017). Positive Group Affective Tone and Employee Work Engagement: AMultilevel Investigation. Social Behavior & Personality: AnInternational Journal, 45(11), 1905–1918. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.6751
Abstract: We investigated the impact of positive group affective tone on employee work engagement. Participants in the study were 74 research and development groups (324 employees and 74 group leaders) employed byhigh-technology companies in China. Hierarchical linear modeling result srevealed a positive cross-level relationship between positive group affective tone and employee work engagement; this relationship was partially mediated by employee core self-evaluation. In addition, there was a positive relationship between leader psychological capital and positive group affective tone at the group level. We further found that leader psychological capital was a moderator between employee core self-evaluation and their work engagement, such that the positive association was stronger when leader psychological capital was high than when it was low. Implications for organizational and individual change are described, and recommendations for future research directions are discussed.
Macey, W. H., & Schneider, B.(2008). The meaning of employee engagement. In Industrial and OrganizationalPsychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice (pp. 3–30).
Mauno, S., Kinnunen, U., &Ruokolainen, M. (2007). Job demands and resources as antecedents of workengagement: A longitudinal study – ScienceDirect. Journal of VocationalBehavior, 70, 149–171.
Abstract: .By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (nD409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement—especially vigor and dedication—was relatively frequently experienced among the participants, and its average level did not change across the follow-up period. In addition, the experience of work engagement turned out to be reasonably stable during the 2-year period. Job resources predicted work engagement better than job demands. Job control and organization-based self-esteem proved to be the best lagged predictors of the three dimensions of work engagement. However, only the positive effect of job control on dedication remained statistically significant after controlling for the baseline level of work engagement (Time 1).
O’Connor, E. P., &Crowley-Henry, M. (2017). Exploring the Relationship Between Exclusive TalentManagement, Perceived Organizational Justice and Employee Engagement: Bridgingthe Literature. Journal of Business Ethics. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-017-3543-1
Abstract: This conceptual paper explores the relationship between an organization’s exclusive talent management (TM) practices, employees’perceptions of the fairness of exclusive TM practices, and the corresponding impact on employee engagement. We propose that in organizations pursuing exclusive TM programs, employee perceptions of organizational justice of the exclusive TM practices may affect their employee engagement, which may influence both organizational and employee outcomes. Building on extant research, we present a conceptual framework depicting the relationship between exclusive TM practices, organizational justice and employee engagement, with social exchange theory and equity theory as the framework’s foundation. The propositions in the framework are each supported by the respective literature.The perceived organizational justice and potential ramifications of exclusive TM practices for employees who are not included in corporate talent pools is an under-researched topic. The paper considers the perspectives of employees not included in corporate talent pools and explores how exclusive TM practices, as inputs, could lead to negative employee engagement outputs. In unpacking how exclusive TM practices could impact on employee engagement, the implications for organizations are underlined. The ethics and perceived fairness of exclusive TM practices, which have the potential to marginalize employees and lead to their disengagement, are considered.
Powell, J. (n.d.). Employee Engagement Survey Results: Best Practices & How to Use Them |Scontrino-Powell. Retrieved September 23, 2017, from http://www.scontrino-powell.com/2017/employee-engagement-surveys-in-2017-what-to-do-with-your-survey-results/
Top recommendations for what to do with your Employee Engagement Survey Results,along with many examples and additional resources.
Rich, B. L., LePine, J. A., &Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on jobperformance. Academy of Management Journal, 53(3), 617–635.
Abstract: The relationship between the investment of an employee’s whole self into a job and his or her performance is studies. Findings show that employee engagement plays a mediating role in the relationships between core self-evaluations, perceived, organizational support, value congruence,organizational citizenship behavior, and task performance.
Saks, A. M. (2017). Translating Employee Engagement Research into Practice. Organizational Dynamics, 46(2),76–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orgdyn.2017.04.003
Abstract: In this paper, the author discusses strategic (top-down) and proactive (bottom-up) approaches to work engagement. Organizations that follow a top-down approach may implement strategic human resource management systems to facilitate employee work engagement, or make their leaders aware of the importance of providing job resources to their employees. Organizations may also facilitate their employees in proactively mobilizing resources themselves.He will discuss four possible bottom:up approaches to work engagement, namely(a) self-management, (b) job crafting, (c) strengths use, and (d) mobilizing ego resources. Whereas strategic FIRM initiatives and transformational leadership are expected to have an important structural impact on employee work engagement through an enriched work environment, employees may also influence their own levels of work engagement by being proactive — from day to day. He will argue that employee work engagement is most likely in organizations with a clear HR strategy, in which leaders provide resources to their employees, and inwhich employees engage in daily proactive behaviors such as job crafting and strengths use.
Schaufeli, W.B. (2014). What isengagement? In Employee engagement in theory and practice (pp. 15–35).New York: Routledge.
Schaufeli, Wilmar B., Bakker, A. B.,& Van Rhenen, W. (2009). How changes in job demands and resources predictburnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism. Journal ofOrganizational Behavior, 30(7), 893–917.
Abstract: The present longitudinal survey among 201 telecom managers supports the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that postulates a health impairment process and a motivational process. As hypothesized, results of structural equation modeling analyses revealed that: (1) increases in job demands (i.e., overload, emotional demands, and work-home interference) and decreases in job resources (i.e., social support, autonomy, opportunities to learn, and feedback) predict burnout, (2) increases in job resources predict work engagement, and (3) burnout (positively) and engagement (negatively)predict registered sickness duration (“involuntary” absence) and frequency (“involuntary” absence), respectively. Finally, consistent with predictions results suggest a positive gain spiral: initial work engagement predicts an increase in job resources, which, in its turn, further increases work engagement.
Shuck, B., & Rose, K. (2013).Reframing Employee Engagement Within the Context of Meaning and Purpose:Implications for HRD. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 15(4),341–355. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422313503235
The Problem: Leaders who develop high levels of employee engagement within their organizations enjoy increased levels of competitive advantage. Consequently, organizations understandably desire higher levels of engagement. However, present research and perspectives on employee engagement have focused primarily on leveraging outcomes toward performance rather than the conditions that nurture performance. Such a unidimensional focus presents a gap in understanding how engagement emerges in practice and what strategies human resource development (HRD) practitioners can utilize to cultivate positive conditions for employee engagement. The Solution: Reframing engagement within the context of meaning and purpose provides a unique lens from which to view the conditions that cultivate the development of engagement. In this article, we present an alternative, yet complementary view of employee engagement that focuses on how performance can be sustained within the context of meaning and purpose. Emerging implications for the field of HRD are explored. The Stakeholders: The intended audience for this article includes HRD scholars, scholar-practitioners, practitioners, and students interested in the development and use of employee engagement, meaningful work, and the operationalization of meaning and purpose within an HRD context.
Sievert, H., & Scholz, C.(2017). Engaging employees in (at least partly) disengaged companies. Resultsof an interview survey within about 500 German corporations on the growingimportance of digital engagement via internal social media. Public RelationsReview. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2017.06.001
Abstract: In an increasingly disengaged world, companies need to engage their employees, at the very least in order to boost employee loyalty and productivity. In line with the trend of digitalization, more and more companies are also establishing social tools in their internal communication.When such platforms are established internally in companies, they can, in a best-case scenario, change employee engagement, knowledge management,leadership structure and ultimately even the business models of companies fundamentally. However, there is an important interdependence: the use of internal social media fosters stronger employee engagement, while a minimum of existing trust-based employee engagement is necessary in order to successfully establish these tools. Therefore, “digital employee engagement” can only function as at least partly “blended employee engagement”.
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B.,Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Work engagement and financialreturns: A diary study on the role of job and personal resources. Journal ofOccupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(1), 183–200. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317908X285633
Abstract: This study investigates how daily fluctuations in job resources (autonomy, coaching, and team climate) are related to employees’levels of personal resources (self-efficacy, self-esteem, and optimism), work engagement, and financial returns. Forty-two employees working in three branches of a fast-food company completed a questionnaire and a diary booklet over 5 consecutive workdays. Consistent with hypotheses, multi-level analyses revealed that day-level job resources had an effect on work engagement through day-level personal resources, after controlling for general levels of personal resources and engagement. Day-level coaching had a direct positive relationship with day-level work engagement, which, in-turn, predicted daily financial returns. Additionally, previous days’ coaching had a positive, lagged effect on next days’ work engagement (through next days’ optimism), and on next days’financial returns.
Zak, P. J. (2017). The Neuroscienceof Trust. Harvard Business Review, 95(1), 84–90.
Abstract: Managers have tried various strategies and perks to boost employee engagement—all with little impact on long-term retention and performance. But now, neuroscience offers some answers. Through his research on the brain chemical oxytocin—shown to facilitate collaboration and teamwork—Zakhas developed a framework for creating a culture of trust and building a happier, more loyal, and more productive workforce. By measuring people’s oxytocin levels in response to various situations—first in the lab and later in the workplace—Zak identified eight key management behaviors that stimulate oxytocin production and generate trust: (1) Recognize excellence. (2) Induce“challenge stress.” (3) Give people discretion in how they do their work. (4)Enable job crafting. (5) Share information broadly. (6) Intentionally build relationships. (7) Facilitate whole-person growth. (8) Show vulnerability.Ultimately, Zak concludes, managers can cultivate trust by setting a clear direction, giving people what they need to see it through, and then getting out of their way. In short, to boost engagement, treat people like responsible adults.